The Bolt as a Machine & the Importance of Liberal Lubrication

The bolt as a screw is one of the six simple machines. A simple machine magnifies or changes the direction of an input force. By means of mechanical advantage, a bolt can dramatically increase its input force. Take for example an 8-bolt flange with 3/4-inch diameter bolts. By manual effort alone, a person can easily develop a total bolt load of over 110 tons. This article explains the mechanics by which the mechanical advantage is possible and then draws attention to how friction can deteriorate the end effect of a bolt’s mechanical advantage.

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